International energy companies have emerged as the dominant exporters of coal and are increasingly dominating the global economy, with China leading the pack.
Despite a massive expansion of Chinese coal consumption, coal remains the world market leader.
China has become the world leader in the use of coal to generate electricity.
Its coal exports to the United States rose from $2.8 billion in 2013 to $4.9 billion in 2014, according to the Energy Information Administration.
That represents a rise of 2,700 percent.
The US is the second largest exporter after China, with coal imports growing at 7,600 percent since 2009.
The biggest gains were in coal for power generation, which grew from $1.5 billion in 2009 to $2 billion in 2016, according a 2016 report from the International Energy Agency.
China’s dominance has been challenged by Russia, which has been ramping up its coal consumption and has the largest coal reserves in the world.
Russia has seen a surge in its coal use as it has become more energy independent, with an annual increase in consumption of less than 0.5 percent from 2014 to 2020.
Russia exported coal in 2016 to the US at $1 billion.
Russia also exported coal to other countries, such as Australia and Norway.
In the past few years, Russia has increased its exports to China by more than 10 percent.
Russia, Russia’s closest competitor in the global market, also exports coal to Brazil, Argentina, India, Indonesia and Malaysia.
India, meanwhile, is the largest importer of Chinese-made coal, importing a total of $11.4 billion in coal in 2014.
But India is also exporting coal to countries in Southeast Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, as well as the United Kingdom, which is its largest trading partner.